Epilepsy: Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Risk and factor & Treatments

Epilepsy Definition
Friends, let us tell you that epilepsy is a neurological condition that causes recurrent seizures without provocation, and also a seizure is a sudden rush of abnormal electrical activity in your brain. Doctor of Epilepsy Diagnosis is made when you have had two or more seizures and there is no other identifiable cause.

And according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), according to the World Health Organization (WHO) as well as about 3.5 million people in the United States itself, epilepsy affects only 50 million people worldwide.

Friends, let us tell you that anyone can develop epilepsy, but it usually starts in young children and older adults. According to research published in 2021, men are more likely to have epileptic seizures than women, possibly due to a higher risk of risk factors such as alcohol use and head trauma.

There are two main types of tour:

  1. and that generalized seizure
  2. focal tour
  3. And at the same time that generalized seizures affect your whole brain. Focal, or even partial, seizures affect only one part of your brain.

Friends, let us tell you that it can be difficult to recognize a mild seizure. This may only last for a few seconds, and may keep you awake while it happens Strong seizures can cause cramps and similar muscle twitches They can last from a few seconds to several minutes as well as cause confusion or loss of consciousness. Afterwards, only that you may have no memory of having a seizure.
Friends, let us tell you that there is currently no cure for epilepsy, but it can be managed with medicines as well as other strategies.
What are the symptoms of epilepsy?
Friends, let us tell you that epileptic seizures are the main symptom of epilepsy. Symptom’s is a very person to the person and that according to the type of seizure.
Focal (partial) seizures
Friends, let us tell you that a focal conscious seizure (formerly called a simple partial seizure) does not involve loss of consciousness. And that as well. These symptoms include:

  1. Tell friends that it is a change in the sense of taste, smell, sight, hearing or touch.
  2. you get that dizzy
  3. and with it tingling and tingling of the limbs

It is a loss of awareness or consciousness in focal unintentional seizures (formerly called complex partial seizures). And in addition to that, he includes these symptoms:

  1. Tell him to keep a watchful eye
  2. unresponsive
  3. performing repetitive movements
  4. and with that generalized seizures
  5. In generalized seizures, that whole brain is involved.

Subtypes include:

  1. Absence recovery: Note that that absence seizure was called a “petit mal seizure”. And at the same time they cause a slight loss of awareness, a blank stare, and they can also cause repetitions such as lip smacking or blinking.
  2. tonic seizures: In addition, this tonic seizure causes sudden stiffness in the muscles of your legs, arms or torso.
  3. Atonic tour: Tell friends that atonic seizures result in loss of muscle control. They are also called “drop seizures” because a sudden loss of muscle strength can cause you to fall suddenly.
  4. clonic seizures: In addition, this then-clonic seizure is characterized by repeated, jerky muscle movements of the face, neck and arms.
  5. myoclonic seizures: Explain that these myoclonic seizures cause spontaneous rapid twitching of the hands and feet. Sometimes these visits are intertwined.
  6. Tonic-clonic seizures

Friends, tell you that tonic-clonic seizures were called “Grand Mal Seizures”. Symptoms include:

  1. as it hardens the body
  2. vibration
  3. So That’s well a loss of The bladders and bowel control
  4. tongue bite
  5. fainting
  6. After that seizure, you may not remember the seizure, and he or you may feel a little sick for a few hours.
First aid for seizures
Friends, it is important to note that most seizures do not require emergency medical attention, and that once it progresses, you cannot stop the seizure.

And when you’re with someone who is having a mild stroke:

  1. Tell that he should stay with the person until his seizure is over and with that he does not wake up.
  2. Once they wake up, take them to a safe place and at the same time tell them what happens.
  3. Tell him to stay calm and try to keep other people calm.
  4. Speak calmly.
  5. And along with that check that medical bracelet.
  6. Offer to help get the person home safely.

Friends, if a person is having tonic-clonic seizures, which cause uncontrollable shaking or jerking:

  1. Tell him to rest the person on the ground.
  2. And at the same time, gently turn them on their side to help them breathe.
  3. And that is to remove any dangerous object away from them.
  4. Tell him that he should put something soft under his head.
  5. And friends, if they wear glasses, take them off.
  6. So Loosened any of clothing’s such as a tie, that’s may be affect breathing’s.
  7. time of seizure and and call 911 if it lasts longer than 5 minutes.

It’s never important when someone is having a stroke:

  1. Tell them to hold the person down or try to stop their movements
  2. And at the same time, if we put anything in their mouth
  3. And at the same time give them mouth to mouth
  4. Give the person food or water until he is fully alert.
What is the cause of epilepsy?
Let us tell you that according to the WHO, its cause cannot be determined in about half of the people suffering from epilepsy. As well as those that can contribute to the development of a variety of factors, such as:

    1. Tell that it is a traumatic brain injury or other head trauma
    2. as well as scarring of the brain after a brain injury (post-traumatic epilepsy)
    3. serious illness and that either this very high fever
    4. Stroke, and one that occurs when there is no identifiable cause, according to the CDC, accounts for about half of epilepsy cases in older adults.
    5. lack of oxygen to the brain
    6. brain tumor or cyst
    7. and at the same time he was diagnosed with dementia including Alzheimer’s disease.
    8. Maternal use of certain drugs, prenatal injury, and that may be encephalopathy, or lack of oxygen at birth
    9. as well as infectious conditions such as HIV and AIDS as well as those that
    10. genetic or developmental disorder and that or this neurological disease
    11. Epilepsy can develop at any age, but it is usually diagnosed in childhood or after the age of 60.
Is epilepsy hereditary?
Friends, let us tell you that according to the Epilepsy Foundation, researchers first identified the gene associated with epilepsy in the late 1990s. Since then, they have discovered more than 500 genes that contributed to its development. And with that, some genes are associated with certain types of epilepsy. For example, people with Fluid syndrome often have abnormal changes in their SCN1A gene.

Not all genes associated with epilepsy are passed down through families. And at the same time, some gene mutations are developed in children, even if they are not present in the parents. And at the same time they are called “de novo mutations”.

Some types of epilepsy are more common in people with a family history, but most children with epilepsy do not develop epilepsy on their own According to the Epilepsy Foundation, even if a child’s parents or siblings have had epilepsy, their chances of developing it by age 40 are still less than 5 percent.

He is more likely to develop epilepsy if a close relative has generalized epilepsy rather than focal epilepsy Note that if your parents have epilepsy due to some other reason, such as a stroke or brain injury, it does not affect your chances of having a seizure.

And some rare conditions, such as tuberous sclerosis and neurofibromatosis, can cause seizures These conditions can run in families Genetics can also make some people more vulnerable to seizures from environmental triggers.

Tell friends that if you have epilepsy and you are worried about starting a family, then consider arranging counseling with a genetic counselor.
What triggers epileptic seizures?
Let us tell you that some people identify those things or situations and those that trigger their seizures.

Some of the most common known triggers are:

  1. you lack sleep
  2. you have a fever or illness
  3. stress to you
  4. And that bright light, flashing light, or pattern
  5. Caffeine, alcohol and either alcohol withdrawal, drugs, or illegal drugs
  6. skipping meals, and that is, overeating, and either specific food items
  7. very low blood sugar
  8. You hit your head.

Be aware that it is not always easy to identify the triggers A single event does not always mean that something is the trigger, and most often, a combination of factors triggers a seizure.

Be aware that a good way to find your triggers is to keep a seizure journal. And with this so after each seizure, pay attention to the following:

  1. and that day and time
  2. And also what activity were you involved in
  3. what was happening around you
  4. unusual sights, smells, and sounds that either
  5. abnormal tension
  6. And friends tell that what you were eating or how long it has been since you ate
  7. Your fatigue level and how well did you sleep at night?
  8. And so on so That’s You can be also used yours seizure journals to the determined if your medications are working. And friends, take note of how you felt just before and after the attack, and any side effects.

And also bring that journal with you when you go to the doctor This can be helpful to your doctor if he or she needs to adjust your medications and look for other treatments if it becomes necessary.
Possible complications of epilepsy
Explain that epileptic seizures disrupt the electrical activity of your brain, and those that can directly or indirectly affect many parts of your body. In addition, possible complications of epilepsy include:

  1. Let us tell you that it is a learning difficulty (about 20 percent of people with epilepsy have an intellectual disability, according to a 2018 research article)
  2. And at the same time he got hurt from a fall during the tour.
  3. as well as injury while driving an automobile or machinery
  4. depression
  5. and brain damage from your prolonged and uncontrolled seizures
  6. suffocating food and either saliva
  7. drug side effects.

And friends, let us tell you that according to the CDC, every year, about 1.16 out of every 1,000 people with epilepsy experience sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). SUDEP is an epilepsy-related death that is not caused by drowning, injury, or any other known cause. Interruptions in breathing, and that blockage of the airways as well as abnormal heart rhythms, are believed to contribute.

In addition, SUDEP is more common in people with epilepsy who are not well managed. Taking all your medicines as prescribed and visiting your doctor regularly can also help you reduce your risk.
How is epilepsy diagnosed?
Let us tell you that if you suspect that you have had a stroke, and only then see a doctor as soon as possible. Also this seizure can be a symptom of a serious medical problem.

Friends, that is your medical history as well as these symptoms will help your doctor decide which tests will be helpful they are your motor abilities as well as mental function You will be given a neurological exam to test the system.

Explain that in order to diagnose epilepsy, other conditions that cause seizures must be ruled out. A doctor will probably order a complete blood count (CBC) as well as your blood chemistry.
Blood tests may be used to look for:

  1. Tell friends that these are the symptoms of infectious diseases.
  2. liver as well as kidney function
  3. blood sugar level

The electroencephalogram (EEG) is the most common test used to diagnose epilepsy. This is a non-invasive and painless test that involves placing electrodes on your scalp to look for abnormal patterns in your brain’s electrical activity. And he may also ask you to do a specific task during the test. In some cases, that time trial is done.

Explain that these imaging tests can reveal tumors and other abnormalities and those that can cause seizures. And in addition, he or she may attend these tests:

  1. and that CT scan
  2. And also that MRI
  3. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
  4. single-photon emission computerized tomography
  5. Note that epilepsy is usually diagnosed if you have seizures, as well as if there is no obvious or reversible cause.
How is epilepsy treated?
Let me tell you that by treating it, it can be of great help to you only in reducing the seizures or stopping the seizures completely.

And that’s what your treatment plan will be based on:

  1. and also the severity of your symptoms
  2. your health
  3. So that’s also how’s well you’re respond to the therapy.

Some of the treatment options include:

  1. Such as those (anticonvulsant, antiseizure) drugs: Anti-epileptic drugs can only help reduce that number of seizures you have. In some people, they can eliminate seizures. And also. For it to be most effective, the medicine should be taken exactly as prescribed by your doctor.
  2. Vagus nerve stimulator: Explain that this device is surgically placed under the skin on your chest and electrically stimulates the nerve passing through your neck to stop the seizure itself.
  3. Ketogenic diet: According to the Epilepsy Foundation, more than half of children who do not respond to medications, also benefit from a ketogenic diet, which is a high-fat and low-carbohydrate diet.
  4. brain surgery: Tell friends that if you and your health care team determine that this is the right treatment for your condition, only then can the area of ​​the brain that causes seizure activity be removed or replaced. .
  5. Research on new treatments continues: And at the same time, one treatment that may become more widely available in the future is deep brain stimulation. This involves placing electrodes in your brain and a generator in your chest. And at the same time, the generator sends electrical impulses to your vehicle to help reduce seizures.

The FDA approved the use of deep brain stimulation in 2018 in people over the age of 18, as well as those with focal onset seizures that have responded to at least three anti-epileptic drugs. not given.

She is also being investigated for invasive surgery and with it.
Medicines for epilepsy
It should be noted that the first-line treatment for epilepsy is anti-seizure medication so Theses drug’s are the designer to the help reduced the frequency’s and severity of seizures. They cannot stop an ongoing seizure, and at the same time they are not a cure for epilepsy.

And friends, medicines are absorbed by your stomach so That’s traveling through yours blood stream to of your brain and They’re affect neurotransmitters in such a way that the electrical activity of seizures is also greatly reduced.

Let us tell you that there are many anti-seizure drugs in the market. Your doctor may prescribe a single drug and a combination of either medicine, depending on the type of seizure you have.

Common epilepsy drugs include:

  1. And that’s Levetiracetam (Keppra)
  2. lamotrigine (Lamictal)
  3. and that (topmax)
  4. Valproic Acid (Depakote)
  5. and also (Tegretol)
  6. ethosuximide (Zarontin)

These medicines are generally available in the form of tablet, liquid or injection and along with it they are taken once or twice a day. Your doctor will initially prescribe the lowest possible dosage, which can then be adjusted until it starts working. And along with that these medicines should be taken continuously and as prescribed.

So some of the possible side effects may include:

  1. as if she tired you
  2. you get that dizzy
  3. skin rash
  4. and you have poor coordination
  5. and you have memory problems

It should be noted that rare, but serious side effects include depression and inflammation of the liver or other organs.

Let me tell you that. Epilepsy is different for everyone, but in most cases, people see improvement with anti-seizure medication. And at the same time, some children with epilepsy may stop having seizures and may even stop taking the medicine.
Is surgery an option for epilepsy management?
Tell friends that if that medicine cannot reduce your number of seizures, and that is the only other option brain surgery.
Let us tell you that this is the most common surgical resection. And let us tell you that it involves removing the part of your brain where seizures start. And with that, most often, the temporal lobe is removed in a procedure known as a temporal lobectomy. And let’s say that in some cases, and it can stop the seizure activity.

It should be noted that in some cases, you will be kept awake during this surgery so that the doctor can talk to you as well as avoid removing the part of the brain that is involved in vision, hearing, speech and either Controls vital functions such as movement.
Multiple Subpial Transactions
Explain that this is only if the area of ​​the brain is too large or significant to remove, and only then can this surgeon perform another procedure called a multiple subpial transection, or disconnection. During this procedure, the surgeon makes a cut to block the nerve pathway in your brain. In addition, the cut prevents the seizure from spreading to other areas of your brain.

Note that after surgery, some people are able to cut down on anti-seizure medications and even stop taking them, which is under their doctor’s supervision.

There are risks to any surgery, including a negative reaction to anesthesia, bleeding as well as infection. And note that those cognitive changes can sometimes occur as a result of brain surgery.

It may be a good idea to discuss the pros and cons of various procedures with your surgeon and other health care team members. You may also want to get a second opinion before making a final decision.
When to contact a doctor
Be aware that it is important to see your doctor regularly for checkups And with that said, according to the National Health Service, people with well-managed epilepsy should consider seeing their family doctor or epilepsy specialist at least once per year And also with this. People with epilepsy who cannot be treated properly, and that is why they may need to see their doctor more often.

Be aware that if you experience any new symptoms or side effects after you change your medication, it’s also a good idea to schedule an appointment with your doctor.

  1. Living With Epilepsy: BT Gives She What To Expect
  2. Epilepsy is a chronic disease and it can affect many parts of your life.

Be aware that the laws vary from state to state, but if your tour itself is not managed that well, and that is why you may not be given that permission to drive.

Explain that because you never know when a stroke will strike, many everyday activities like crossing a busy street can be dangerous. And at the same time he may be the loss of that freedom from these problems itself.

Let it be known that in addition to going to the doctor and following your treatment plan, here are a few things that you may face:

  1. Tell him to keep a seizure diary to help identify possible triggers and so that you can avoid them.
  2. Wear a medical alert bracelet to let people know that you have epilepsy, friends, that’s because if you have a seizure and can’t speak, you’ll get the medical help right.
  3. Teach those closest to you about the seizure itself and what to do in this situation.
  4. Seek professional help if you have – or think and feel that you have – symptoms of depression and either anxiety.
  5. And at the same time, join a support group for people with seizure disorders.
  6. Indulge in health-promoting activities rich in nutrients, as well as eating a balanced diet and getting regular exercise.
  7. Learn more about living with epilepsy itself.
Is there any treatment for epilepsy?
It is to be noted that early treatment with medication can help reduce the frequency of seizures as well as the likelihood of serious complications And in the meantime, epilepsy surgery is considered curative in most cases.

It should be noted that about 30 percent of people with partial epilepsy and 25 percent of people with generalized epilepsy have seizures and do not respond well to the drug itself.

Be aware that so if medication fails, your doctor may recommend surgery or vagus nerve stimulation.

Let us tell you that these two types of brain surgery can reduce or eliminate seizures. In addition, a type of resection, called a resection, involves removing the part of the brain and/or the area where the seizure occurs.

Explain that this is only when the area of ​​the brain responsible for the seizure is too important or large to remove, and only then this surgeon can do the disconnection. In this, the nerve pathway by making that cut in the brain itself includes interrupting. And at the same time, it prevents the seizure from spreading to other parts of the brain.

Let me tell you that he is doing dozens of research on the causes, treatment and as well as possible treatment of epilepsy and he is going on other paths.

Friends, however, there is no cure at this time, and the right treatment can result in a dramatic improvement in your condition and your quality of life.

Facts and figures about epilepsy
Friends, let us tell you that around the world, 50 million people have epilepsy so That’s in United States alone and the approximately 3 million people’s at 470,000 children’s have epilepsy a with approximately at the 150,000 new cases diagnoses each year.

  1. Let us tell you that more than 500 genes can be related to epilepsy in some way or the other.
  2. Stroke accounts for about half of epilepsy cases in older adults, unless there is another identifiable cause.
  3. In about 40 percent of American children between the ages of 4 and 15, epilepsy is the only seizure and it is also a neurological disorder. The most common are intellectual disabilities, speech-language disabilities, and either specific learning disabilities.
  4. And with this, about 1.9 percent of epilepsy-related deaths in the United States are due to prolonged seizures, a condition called status epilepticus.
  5. By age 65, those very old people tend to have seizures almost as often as they do in children.
  6. And with this, more than 1 million people in the United States have epilepsy that is not well managed.

About 80 percent of people who suffer from epilepsy and let us tell you that it is people who live in low-income countries and they do not get proper treatment And at the same time, the cause of epilepsy is unknown in about half the cases worldwide.

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